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conclusion of act 4 scene 1 merchant of venice

Antonio then turns to Bassanio, bids him farewell, and asks to be commended to Bassanio’s “honorable wife,” for whose cause the loan was arranged in the first place. Here, the whole answer is being described point wise so that all the students can remember easily. The Duke pardons him to make him see the difference in their thinking of his. He says that it was bad luck that Antonio fell into the clutches of such an enemy who doesn’t even have an ounce of mercy. Now Portia asks if Antonio was ready to show mercy upon Shylock. Why? However, he cannot let a drop of Christian blood spill, for if he did so, then by the laws of Venice his lands would be confiscated. The Editor. Shylock thinks that Portia was on his side and when Portia asked for the bond, he readily produced it. The duke then asks Shylock a question: “How shalt thou hope for mercy, rendering none?” In reply, Shylock cites the mistreatment of many Venetian slaves by the Venetians themselves, justified by the fact that they bought the slaves and can treat them as they please; likewise, the pound of flesh which he has “dearly bought” belongs to him, and he can do with it as he pleases. 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Shylock enters the court and the Duke tells him that all of the men gathered there expect him to pardon Antonio and forgive the debt. Bassanio asks him whether men kill all the things that they don’t love. . He himself asks for no further pleas; he begs that judgment be quickly given. • As Shylock is about to start cutting again, Portia says that the bond does not give him permission to shed Antonio's blood. In a moment of inspiration, she asks to see the bond; she inspects it, and she discerns a flaw: Antonio’s flesh may be forfeit, but nothing has been stipulated concerning the letting of blood. With Portia’s pronouncement that the law allows “no jot of blood,” Shylock’s case is lost. She asks Antonio if his bond is a valid one, and he admits that it is. Antonio’s seemingly last speech at line 263 has a dignified nobility; he declares once more his love for Bassanio; he asks him neither to grieve nor repent. It depicts the victory of … Bassanio then tries to reason with Shylock’— but without success. Shylock asks for his principal amount of three thousand ducats but even that is denied to him by Portia. Through Shylock’s extreme behavior, Shakespeare dramatizes the way in which the laws of justice and property on which society is based can be, without charity and mercy and humanity, as ferocious as the law of any jungle. You can simply go through the answer from the images displayed below. The laws of Venice are such that if any Venetian's blood is shed, all the goods and lands of the perpetrator may be confiscated by the state. Duke: I am sorry for thee : thou art come to answer A stony adversary, an inhuman wretch At this point, the situation is a potentially tragic one, and once more Shakespeare needs to remind his audience that this play is not, finally, tragic. ICSE Solutions Selina ICSE Solutions ML Aggarwal Solutions. “There is something else,” she says. Bassanio then offers Shylock twice the amount. Share. . … I cannot find it; ’tis not in the bond.” Clearly, Portia is leading Shylock slowly into a trap which he has prepared for himself with his reply to her plea for mercy, “My deeds upon my head! Portia is mentioned in the earlier scene, but this is her first appearance. Nerissa disguised as a clerk gives a letter to the Duke and Shylock is seen sharpening his knife. 5 3 customer reviews. Yet, while Shylock is demanding “justice,” Shakespeare makes absolutely clear to the audience that Shylock’s inhumanity, his obsession with revenge, is what motivates his demands. Although he professes to stand on the letter of the law, Shylock reveals quite clearly that his real motive has nothing to do with right or wrong, justice or injustice, but with his desire to destroy another human being — a Christian who has publicly scorned and spit upon him. Gratiano gets agitated and hurls many insults at him but Shylock is still unmoved. The ring was given to him by Portia and Bassanio had promised that he would never part with it. The Merchant of Venice - Act 4 Scene 1 - The Courtroom Scene! Bassanio says that he was willing to lose all, even his wife, if he could save his beloved friend’s life. Salerio announces that a messenger has come. Understand every line of The Merchant of Venice. The Duke tries to warn him that how would he hope for mercy when he is showing none. By asking Shylock to show mercy toward Antonio, the duke provides Shylock with a final opportunity to restate his position and, dramatically, Shakespeare prolongs the suspense of whether or not Shylock will actually demand Antonio’s life. Merchant of Venice Act 4, Scene 1 Modern English Translation Meaning Annotations – ICSE Class 10 & 9 English. Bassanio, at last, sends Gratiano after the two with his ring and tells Antonio that they very next day they would leave for Belmont. The main objective Shakespeare has fulfilled in this scene is exposition of plot and characters. Now it can be demonstrated anew that Shylock remains merciless in order to justify the punishment which he finally receives. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. Thus she proceeds with methodical legality — until the last moment, when she says, understatedly, “Tarry a little; there is something else,” words which will reverse the whole situation. ‘Nearest his heart’; those are the very words.” And when Portia humanely asks Shylock to “have . Shylock says, "I cannot find it. Modern English Reading Act IV Scene I. DUKE : What, is Antonio here? Act 1 scene 3, introduces Shylock for the first time in 'The Merchant of Venice' as the plays villainous Jew. Read our modern English translation of this scene. In addition, Portia reminds Shylock that one of the laws of Venice forbids an alien from directly or indirectly attempting “to seek the life of any citizen” of Venice. The trial scene of ‘The Merchant of Venice’ is the most famous and powerful scene of the play in the whole of English dramas. This study note summarises the events of Act 4 and Act 5 of the Merchant of Venice. Merchant of Venice: Novel Summary: Act 4 Scene 1 This is the scene where Shylock is to take his forfeiture from Antonio. Mercy was above everything. Shylock tries to leave but Portia accuses him of scheming to take the life of a Venetian. However, Shylock replies that he has already informed the court what he wants and according to the law, he should not be denied. He therefore demands an immediate judgment confirming this right. At this point, the dignity which Shylock possessed at the scene’s beginning and the sympathy which Shakespeare evoked for him has now gone, as he exults over Antonio’s approaching death. ICSE Solutions Selina ICSE Solutions ML Aggarwal Solutions. ACT 4. The duke welcomes young Balthasar, who is, of course, Portia “dressed like a Doctor of Laws.” Portia acknowledges that she is familiar with this case and its “strange nature,” and she is equally acquainted with the integrity of Venetian law. Antonio's friends and even the Duke beg him to have mercy, Shylock says he will not grant mercy for the simple reason that he hates Antonio. The Court Hearing Starts. This is the scene where Shylock is to take his forfeiture from Antonio. Shylock replies that it was not mentioned in the bond and he cannot do anything about it. This is an ultimate punishment for so orthodox a Jew; he is so stunned that he begs his judges: “I pray you give me leave to go from hence: /1 am not well. That seems a harsh judgment; at times, it is difficult to see Shylock as anything but a figure of pathos. It is freely bestowed to temper justice, and those who grant mercy ennoble themselves, especially those people who have the power to dispense punishment and yet award mercy instead. Tension increases further when Nerissa (as the law clerk) is announced, and she presents the letter from Bellario to the duke. Realizing that he is beaten at his own game, Shylock asks for only the amount of the bond — and Bassanio offers it — but Portia points out that all the court was witness to Shylock’s refusing the money. Seeing that he would lose, Shylock says that he should be given thrice the sum and the Christian must be allowed to go. Moreover, he is asking what is lawfully his and the Duke must award him accordingly. He “crave[s] the law” and “the penalty and forfeit of [his] bond.” He does not care that Bassanio has offered him “thrice the sum” of the bond or even “ten times o’er”; Shylock demands the penalty. He was guilty and according to the law, half of his property must go to the state and half to Antonio. She then tells him that Shylock must be merciful. The Merchant of Venice | Act 4, Scene 1 | Summary Share. At this, Shylock is shocked: Why should he be merciful? This explains her surprisingly legal coldness; Portia knows exactly what she is doing. Themes and Colors Key LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in The Merchant of Venice, which you can use to track the themes throughout the work. Structured Questions from Act 4 Scene 1 of the Merchant of Venice by William Shakespeare. He is unable to provide … After Shylock’s exit, the play, which has, at times, come near to tragedy, and which has had, because of Shylock, an element of pathos, reverts completely to the tone of a romantic comedy. He is an intensely sympathetic figure here, alone in his solitude, surrounded on all sides by his enemies. When Portia is brought on in disguise, Shakespeare sustains the tension still longer by having her question the legality of the bond — Antonio may not have agreed formally or he may have agreed to another set of conditions. At this point, however, the audience doesn’t, and this, of course, adds to the tension of the scene. The Merchant of Venice Act 4 (Scene 1) Plot Summary with Word Meanings The trial scene of The Merchant of Venice' is the most famous and powerful scene of the play in the whole of English dramas. Following the duke’s merciful example, Antonio says that he will take only half of Shylock’s goods which are due to him (Shylock can have the other half) in trust in order to give them to Lorenzo (Shylock’s son-in-law) upon Shylock’s death, on two conditions: first, Shylock must become a Christian, and second, he must deed everything to Jessica and Lorenzo. The Duke of Venice warns Antonio, the defendant, that the plaintiff (Shylock) is “a stony adversary . Love and hate are thematically opposed in this play, and since Shylock is slowly revealed to be the embodiment of hate, there is a satisfying kind of justice in his riches going to a pair of lovers. The Duke is upset about the penalty, a pound of Antonio's flesh, but cannot find any lawful way of freeing Antonio from his bond. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); The scene is of a court in Venice. He achieves this at the moment of greatest tension when he allows the drama to slacken for a moment, and we listen in on the little exchange between the disguised wives (Portia and Nerissa) as their husbands declare their love and loyalty for one another; we chuckle when we hear Portia and Nerissa comment on these “last” words between Antonio and Bassanio. He further asks the court to give the judgement. He has been defeated — he, a Jew — in a Venetian, Christian court of law, and as part of his punishment, he has had to agree to become a Christian. Translation. . This page contains the original text of Act 4, Scene 1 of The Merchant of Venice. Act 4 : Scene 1 Summary – The Merchant of Venice. And if he takes even “in the estimation of a hair” more than a pound of flesh, he will die and all his goods will be confiscated. We tend to agree with the nineteenth-century writer Hazlitt, who wrote that “certainly our sympathies are oftener with him than with his enemies. This’will be even more striking at the moment of his defeat. Impatient to proceed, Shylock makes ready to begin, but before he can carry out the sentence, Portia stops him. The trial of Antonio in a Venetian court of justice begins. Portia sees that the case was very much in favour of Shylock and thus she asks him to have mercy. I crave the law.”. At the court of law in Venice, the Duke, Antonio, Bassanio, Salerio, Graziano, and various notable personages are gathered for Antonio's trial. . It is hard to tell whether the audience were supposed to find Shylocks fate at the end of act 4 scene 1 amusing. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of The Merchant of Venice and what it means. A harsh judgment ; at times, it is no use ; Shylock insists upon having carried... Be even more striking at the moneylender ; now the tables are turned ( Portia ) for saying, a... Shylock seeks Antonio ’ s ] epitaph. ” is threatened with death Antonio replies that he take. That he would gain nothing out of Antonio ’ s death, give to! Surrounded on all sides by his opponents, Why he refuses to relent Antonio... Reaction does not have mercy on him Part X ( Section9 ) in Shakespeare. Certain that his reaction does not have mercy kill all the students can easily. He lives to get old enough to see poverty item one might note about Act IV, 1. Relied upon two to take his pound of flesh ” — no.. 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