Before entering into a detailed analysis about the withering away of state we want to quote two important and oft-quoted statements of Engels. pure private property, which has cast off all semblance of a communal institution and has shut out the State from any influence on the development of property. (Marx calls socialism as the first stage of communism. The exploiters cannot openly declare their real motive or cannot say what they are doing. The word relative denotes that sometimes it acts without being influenced by the powerful class. This is the case particularly in Germany. The concepts of culture, of subjective meanings, values, and norms were not part of Marx's intellectual world. Among other things, this would make it difficult for the proletarians to form a clear conception of who was their principal enemy. In those cases it is not applicable. It is the interpretation of their followers. In his recent book, Affluence and Influence: Economic Inequality and Political Power in America (2012), the political... 2. The Italian Marxist Antonio Gramsci developed the key concept of cultural hegemony during his imprisonment by the Italian state under Mussolini’s fascist rule. But bureaucracy, judiciary and legislature act in accordance with certain fixed principles laid down in the constitution of law book. If the instrumentalist model is accepted the relative autonomy model becomes irrelevant. The first is: “The state, then, has not existed from all eternity. The system of private property worked as a potential cause of the rise of state. Marx (1818- 1883) and his friend Engels (1820-1895) have made different comments and statements which constitute the fabric of state theory. The mentality of the workers and that of the capitalists have undergone sea changes during the last century (from 1900 to 1999). (5) The ruling class gives stress on the civil society. Thus, Marxists see a democratic state or republic, especially in a capitalist economic system, as undesirable. 2. The structural Marxist concept of the state’s role and functions has implications for leftist strategy. present) era and the state (or absence of one) in post-capitalist society. There may be an unholy nexus between the economically powerful class and the state. Marx did not directly refer to the relative autonomy of state, but. Yet at the same time, the bourgeoisie had economic power in places. Jessop further says that state is a simple and ordinary organisation and to impose instrumentalism upon it is quite unjustified. On the one hand there is the state and capitalist class and on the other hand there are workers. The present structure of the state is to be changed through reforms. The sentence is about a quarter of the way through Chapter I: "Bourgeois and Proletarians". The proletarians would capture state power and would bring everything of the capitalist state under its supreme authority is nothing but a Utopian thought. But the words withering away refer to the withering away of the remnants of the proletarian state after the socialist revolution. Karl Marx's ideas about the state can be divided into three subject areas: pre-capitalist states, states in the capitalist (i.e. In subsequent regimes the state as an instrument of exploitation did not lose its importance. According to Engels, The modern state, no matter what its form, is es… Marx and Engels predicted that state would wither away. In the old communist society there was no state because there was no existence of private property. It means that the bourgeois state is completely controlled by the dominant class. The capitalists want to prove that they rule not for their own benefits but for an ideology. By doing this the capitalist class has been able to articulate its full hold over all the branches of economy. This concept has been elaborated by Lenin. , Economic Dependence of the State on the Bourgeoisie (2) The conflict between them became prominent. From the study of history Marx and Engels have concluded that the state—for all practical purposes—was set up in the slave society. In Manifesto Marx and Engels have said, “political power, properly so called, is merely the organised power of one class for oppressing another”. This phenomenon was evident already in the first Italian commercial republics; later, since the last century, it showed itself to a marked degree in Holland, where the stock exchange speculator Pinto drew attention to it as early as 1750, and now it is again occurring in England. That is, the state is not always dictated by the capitalists or it does not discharge its functions at the behest of the bourgeoisie. , Marx also suggests that it would be better for the bourgeoisie not to wield power directly because this would make their dominance too obvious, creating a clear target for proletarian attack. Though Marx and Engels have viewed the state from the background of materialism, they have never overlooked the ideological aspect of state. Although Marx and Engels never put forward a unified presentation of the theory of the state, their conception of the state is a fundamental aspect of their outlook, and of what has since come to be called Marxism. Chapter Three: Saint Max", "Part I: Feuerbach. The recent studies of Marxism have revealed that Marx and Engels did not deny the impartial role of state and this is evident in many writings. The theory of state stated and elaborated by Marx and Engels is not free from shortcomings. The workers will gladly welcome all sorts of troubles and will make sacrifice needed for the success of revolution. Two years later, that idea was expounded in The Communist Manifesto:, The executive of the modern state is nothing but a committee for managing the common affairs of the whole bourgeoisie.. 3. The owners of private property felt insecurity as to its protection and they felt the necessity of a super power which could provide protection ultimately. In other words, the chief aim of the bourgeoisie is to control all the branches of government, the economy with all its ramifications and finally the world market. If we look at-the state structures of modern capitalist states we shall come across the fact that the state acts on all important matters, independently. In other words, destabilization may be the consequence. If the nefarious motives of the ruling class come out that may cause embarrassment or displacement of the class rule. The other is—communism would take the place of capitalism. Marxist theory of state, besides liberal state, is perhaps the most prominent theory. Engels in his The Origin of Family, Private Property and State has elaborately analysed the origin and development of state. The phrase ‘ state as state” needs interpretation. In The German Ideology Marx and Engels have stressed the point that in every class state the dominant class always dominants the economic, political, cultural and other aspects of state. Materialists believe that it is the material conditions of the world, for instance, the structure of the economy and the distribution of wealth, that give rise to ideas such as who "should" lead … The state would cease to exist. Marx and Engels predicted (and confidently) that the proletariat class through protracted class struggle and permanent revolution would succeed in capturing capitalist state and establish its overall supremacy which would finally lead to the creation of a communist society. Here we see the development of the concept of proletarian political power (or “state power,” as Marx sometimes referred to it): it has a social soul unlike any previous form of political power, but this class power necessarily takes a political (state) form because during the process of transition to socialism the antagonisms of civil society have not yet been completely abolished. These differences may have full relevance in the field of detailed analysis of Marxist theory of revolution and here we are not concerned with that. This implies that the state acts independently. The Eighteenth Brumaire was written by Marx between December 1851 and March 1852 and during those days he observed the two opposite roles of state—as an instrument of exploitation, as an impartial organ of administration. They have superficially seen the matter. Engels has provided us with an answer; the proletariat class will use the state machinery to suppress the remnants of bourgeois. Thus, we say that the primary objective of proletarians’ revolution is to seize state power, Marx, Engels, Lenin, Stalin (The Problems of Leninism) have said repeatedly that launching of a single revolution by the working class would not be sufficient for achieving the goal. But the exploiting class cannot expose the real character. Most of the capitalists were in favour of exploitation and naturally no one capitalist can go against that trend. (e) The capitalist class uses the state machinery (particularly the police and army) to control the revolt fuelled by the working class. But a major part of his theory of state stands on the concept that working class through class struggle and revolution would seize state power. Orthodox Marxist political theory begins by positing a definition of the State which rejects both Hegelian mysticism and liberal social theory. Commenting upon Engels’ comment Lenin says that abolishing the bourgeois state is the state as state. It may be that the workers are still exploited, but it is also a fact that the extent of exploitation is much less than it was in Marx’s time. Through the emancipation of private property from the community, the State has become a separate entity, beside and outside civil society; but it is nothing more than the form of organisation which the bourgeois necessarily adopt both for internal and external purposes, for the mutual guarantee of their property and interests. But her acceptance of market economy casts doubt on that claim. Every branch of knowledge has a central concept that expresses the fundamental feature or function of the sector of reality it investigate and deals with. The bourgeoisie used the state to articulate the interests of the capitalists. German philosopher Karl Marx took a different view of social order. The class that controls the material forces of production. In The German Ideology they have said: “For each new class which puts itself in the place of one ruling before it is compelled, merely in order to carry through its aim, to present its interest as the common interest of all the members of society”. “This would appear”, says Miliband, “to suggest the complete independence of the state power from all social forces in civil society”. The bourgeois class gradually and steadily captured political power and finally established its authority over all aspects of governmental affairs. The German Ideology, The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte contain sufficient hints about this. They have said “By the mere fact that it is a class and no longer an estate the bourgeoisie is forced to organise itself no longer locally, but nationally and to give a general form to its average interests”. They have viewed the origin from a materialistic’ standpoint which emphasises that though the state is the creation of man, behind this there is no emotion, idea but the influence of material conditions which they termed as economic conditions. Central Idea of Instrumentalist Approach: We have already quoted a long passage from Origin of Family Private Property and State. During Napoleon’s rule the French state was represented by the powerful bureaucracy. For Marx, this was clearly an anomalous situation and gave it considerable attention. (3) Property owners created a force within the society and this force ultimately assumed the status of state. Why? Our point is—Marx and Engels did not lay any faith on reforms. Only the abolition of such a state (usurper of individuals’ liberty) could restore the liberty of the individuals. In the case of the nations which grew out of the Middle Ages, tribal property evolved through various stages — feudal landed property, corporative moveable property, capital invested in manufacture — to modern capital, determined by big industry and universal competition, i.e. In Socialist Registrar (1965) Miliband has said that though the instrumentalist approach is very important, the relative autonomy model is not less important. The class which has the means of material production at its disposal, consequently also controls the means of mental production so that the ideas of those who lacks the means of mental production are on the whole subject to it. Hence Marx is said to be a "materialist". To this modern private property corresponds the modern State, which, purchased gradually by the owners of property by means of taxation, has fallen entirely into their hands through the national debt, and its existence has become wholly dependent on the commercial credit which the owners of property, the bourgeois, extend to it, as reflected in the rise and fall of State funds on the stock exchange. This represents the high point of conformance of the state theory to an economic interpretation of history in which the forces of production determine peoples' production relations and their production relations determine all other relations, including the political. The anarchist philosophers launched a movement for the abolition of state because they thought that the state was not only unnecessary but also a harmful political organisation and its main purpose are to curb liberty of individuals. They prefer to compromise with the vanishing opponent rather than to strengthen the rising enemy, to whom the future belongs". Marx, Engels and their followers (particularly Lenin) had no faith on the social contract theory as the origin of state. Marx and Engels have assertively said that the bourgeoisie has performed these tasks through state and in this way the state acts as an instrument. The same point has been stressed by another critic, “The capitalist state, legislator of the Factory Acts, is, then, the eye of the otherwise blind capitalist, the stabiliser of a system capitalist activity itself endangers”. There is another reason. There is a controversy about the instrumentalist approach and the relative autonomy approach. The ‘authority of the state treats it as an unwelcome feature or development and will try to combat it. The profit difference between what goods are sold for and what they actually cost to make, Marxism refers to as a “surplus profit”. According to Lenin the withering away of state is quite different from abolition of state. They will not use the police, military and other repressive machineries of the bourgeois state. This is not correct. At the same time there developed an animosity between these two classes and again this antagonism could not be settled. The above two comments made by Engels are self-explanatory. However, even the least developed states of Europe, those of the Holy Alliance, are inexorably approaching this fate, for they will be bought up by the bourgeoisie; then Stirner will be able to console them with the identity of private and state property, especially his own sovereign, who is trying in vain to postpone the hour when political power will be sold to the "burghers" who have become "angry". It dies out”. Communist Party of China claims that China is a socialist state. They viewed the state not only a usurper of human liberty but also an instrument of enslaving human beings. But in Marx’s time the capitalists took obstinate attitude towards the workers and the latter retaliated it. They have said that the state is the “Political power, properly so called, is merely the organised power of one class for oppressing another”. The state is not abolished is different from state withers away. They have analysed the origin purely from materialistic point of view. “The state is, by no means, a power forced on society from without… Rather it is a product of society at a certain stage of development”. Sometimes these are involved in conflict and the state authority proceeds cautiously and judiciously. The state gives priority to long term interests over short term interests. If we fail to realise the relative autonomy model of Marxist theory of state our understanding will remain incomplete. Marx and Engels have not stated anything clearly. In these two capitalist states, the state was largely used as an instrument of exploitation. Gramsci based his ideas of hegemony on the Marxist… Even Lenin accepted this model in his highly eulogised famous work State and Revolution. People inhabiting in society laid the foundation of state for the realisation of their class interests. are placed before the state, and it selects some of them. Second Bonaparte took this drastic step not for the general betterment of civil society but for his own sake, to satisfy his own desire for more power. Today the working class is not only united, its bargaining power has enhanced several times. , He as yet was saying nothing about the abolition of private property, does not express a developed theory of class, and "the solution [he offers] to the problem of the state/civil society separation is a purely political solution, namely universal suffrage." It sits (along with the capitalists) at a bargaining table and settles all the disputes. Reforms should not constitute the goals but they are transitory means for arriving at goals. The owners of the property came to be regarded as a separate class whose sole aims were to control the persons who were not the owners of property and to devise a mechanism whose chief function would be to help the property owners. 1. The phrase state as state means the bourgeois state. The mere fact is that though the state acts as an instrument, in numerous cases it tries to maintain its autonomous character and it does so to enhance its image. He did not enter into the depth of the issue. Evans, p 126: "for Marx the failure of the bourgeoisie to act as a ruling class, to give their economic power political substance, was one of the major features of the post-1848 situation, as true of England and France as of Germany. There were (and still are) more matured capitalist states such as United States, Britain, France, Germany and nowhere working class has been able to seize political power. 2. The concept of Marxism Karl Heinrich Marx was born in Trier in the Kingdom of Prussia on the 5 th of May 1818 and died on the 14 March 1883. One thing is quite clear from the analysis made so far — the state is an instrument of exploitation and if emancipation is not possible the state will be under the full control of the economically dominant class. The instrumentalist approach to politics emphasised by Marx and Engels also occupies an important place in The German Ideology (1846). The quote is from the. The state has an independent character and image. Marxian Theory of State: Intro, Definition, Classes and Evaluation Introduction to Marxian Theory of State:. The fact is that all the capitalist states of his time did not play identical role nor did they assume same character. Not only Britain, France was also a capitalist country and the conditions of workers in that country were not better at all. Marxism believes that economic conflict produces class (rich, middle and poor) and inherently class produces conflict. That is, the instrumentalist approach was quite valid. It is generally observed that neither Marx nor Engels has stated clearly this concept. Elsewhere (Marxism and Politics) Miliband has said that there is powerful reason for rejecting this, particular formulation as misleading…… While the state does act on behalf of the ruling class, it does not for most part act at its behest. (1) As soon as there was private property, two classes of men there appeared—one was the owner of property and the other was without property. He was a philoso-pher and economist who is most famous for the creation, together with Friedrich Engels, of the thought of Marxism and for the improvement of the idea of class struggle. Marx has, however, said that when the two dominant groups or classes are in perfect balance, in that situation the state might act independently. We have already stated that the state must always represent a class or group or faction. 4. (4) The ruling class through various means indoctrinates the common people. We, therefore, conclude that the state is the outcome of human contrivance and was made with specific aims. In this passage Marx and Engels have stressed several points, some of which are: (1) A bourgeois state has always some ideology. Marxism sets out from the idea that "force is the midwife of every old society pregnant with a new one," that the state consists ultimately of armed bodies of men, that it is an instrument of the ruling class for the oppression of other classes. Even the concept of state was unknown to the people of this phase. The capitalists were determined to augment the quantum of savings/profit at any cost. Today’s workers are more interested, so far as the agitation is concerned, in democratic or constitutional methods than in revolutionary methods. Neo-Marxist Theory of the State – Explained! The doctrine of socio-economic formations is particularly important to Marx’s theory of state and law, because it provides the basis for the precise and scientific delineation of the different types of state and the different systems of law.Bourgeois political and juridical theorists attempt to establish a classification of political and legal forms without scientific criteria; not from the class essence of the forms, but from more or less external characteristics. Marx makes several points. Finally, the state would wither away. Hence the words relative autonomy do not mean that the state always acts independent of dominating class. It is neither controlled nor dictated by the dominant class. 1. The capitalists must harvest maximum amount of profit so that this profit could be converted into capital formation. There are two predictions one is the bourgeois state would, one day, be seized by the working class. After that the working class will proceed to change the bourgeois structures radically. In this way ideology or ideas act as an instrument or masquerade. Regarding England, he says of the bourgeoisie that "if the aristocracy is their vanishing opponent the working class is their arising enemy. In this way conflict multiplied. Marx did not say these words in clear and unequivocal language. (2) This ideology is backed or fostered by the ruling class. Both the workers and capitalists have decided to eschew the path of conflict and both sides feel that all the disputes can amicably settled. It will always represent a class; it may be that the class is not well articulated or well organised. One is instrumentalist model and the other model is relative autonomy model which is in opposition to the other model. The political form of state would be superfluous. To articulate its full hold over all the factions together: Evans, p 112 emancipate the working is. 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