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economic convergence in media

Influential musician Thurston Moore of the band Sonic Youth recently claimed that he only listens to music on cassette. Media technological convergence is the tendency that as technology changes, different technological system sometimes evolve toward performing similar tasks. Jenkins breaks convergence down into five categories: Economic convergence occurs when a company controls several products or services within the same industry. Jenkins, Henry. Media theorist Henry Jenkins argues that convergence isn’t an end result (as is the hypothetical black box), but instead a process that changes how media is both consumed and produced. Organic convergence is multimedia multitasking, or the natural outcome of a diverse media world. Poking fun at alarmists who see every new technology as making children stupider, Johnson jokingly cautions readers against the dangers of book reading: It “chronically understimulates the senses” and is “tragically isolating.” Even worse, books “follow a fixed linear path. Twenty-first century media culture is increasingly marked by convergence, or the coming together of previously distinct technologies, as in a cell phone that also allows users to take video and check e-mail. In reality, audiences want the new work to offer new insights and new experiences. economic convergence meaning: a process in which economies of different countries become more similar to each other: . High Concept. [4] “Advertising the Digital Age.” Team Digital Company Blog. In general, media convergence falls into four general categories that will be covered in this bibliography: Introductory Works, Business Enterprise Convergence, Technology and Economic Performance, and Culture and Social Commentary. [5] Jenkins, Henry. Similarly, dispersing narrative information across a wide range of channels (divergence) encourages consumers to pull together all the information and form a unified story (convergence). The most common explanation for convergence is the constantly increasing speed at which new technologies spread across international borders. Indeed, fans are looking for deeper experiences in the stories they love. Transmedia storytelling One way that professional media has engaged with media convergence is through transmedia storytelling, in which stories are told across multiple platforms. “I think there’s a group of people—fans and artists alike—out there to whom music is more than just a file on your computer, more than just a folder of MP3s,” says Brad Rose, founder of a Tulsa, Oklahoma-based cassette label (Hogan, 2010). Tags: Uncategorized, Click the icon to the right of a paragraph, Click the icon to the right of the page title (works the same as paragraphs), Transmedia Storytelling in Television 2.0, is this ARG? Economic convergence is when a single company has interests across many kinds of media. Derek Johnson argues that shows like Lost and Heroes disperse narrative information across media platforms in a process that is more like divergence than convergence. Define convergence as it relates to mass media and provide some examples of convergence you’ve observed in your life. Several Apple iPhone apps allow users to apply effects to photos to make them look more like a Polaroid photo. With the introduction of digital technologies and media convergence much, but not Hollywood acts as if it only has to provide more of the same, printing Star Trek (1966) logo on so many widgets. Cassettes, Polaroid cameras, and other seemingly obsolete technologies have been able to thrive—albeit in niche markets—both despite and because of Internet culture. Review the viewpoints of Henry Jenkins, Steven Johnson, and Nicholas Carr. New digital media technology and services are considered as central drivers of creative industries. Name the five types of convergence identified by Henry Jenkins. Recognize how convergence is affecting culture and society. In nearly all the settings we consider, the consumer demand for media content is largely due to demand for entertainment, with the economic impacts emerging as a by-product. Cultural convergence is when stories flow across several kinds of media platforms and when readers or viewers can comment on, alter, or otherwise talk back to culture. Describe the five types of convergence identified by Henry Jenkins and provide an example of each type that you’ve noted in your own experience. There are 3 types of media convergence: technological, economic, and cultural. Posted by Aaron Smith on June 17, 2009 When was the last time you used a rotary phone? They crave more information about their favorite characters and events and are willing to go to great lengths to find it. It is the convergence of many media technologies allowing one media product to perform many different tasks. “Transmedia Storytelling.” MIT Technology Review. Dispersing content across a wide range of delivery channels (divergence) ensures multiple points of entry into a single media franchise (convergence). Greenberg, Andy. Stories flowing across several kinds of media platforms is one component—for example, novels that become television series (. Major publications have been experimenting with television and software applications since the 1970s and 1980s. [1] Robert McChesney has argued that media ownership threatens our democracy. If media conglomerates reward that demand, viewers will feel greater mastery and investment; deny it, and they stomp off in disgust.[5]. Media convergence has been coming on slowly for decades. This may sound like a fringe concern, something to be hemmed and hawed over by communications … Media theorist Henry Jenkins argues that convergence isn’t an end result (as is the hypothetical black box), but instead a process that changes how media is both consumed and produced. As a result, all economies should eventually converge in terms of per capita income. The merging of internet or telecommunications companies with traditional media companies. It erodes long-established media industry and content “silos” and increasingly uncouples content from particular devices, which in turn presents major challenges for public policy and regulation. The trick is to add something new and worthwhile to a franchise in order to facilitate an emotional connection with it. 24 May 2007. Media convergence is the merging of mass communication outlets – print, television, radio, the Internet along with portable and interactive technologies through various digital media platforms. Johnson, Steven Everything Bad Is Good for You (Riverhead, NY: Riverhead Books, 2005). [3] It is unclear, of course, how much of this money goes to NewsCorp and how much goes to LucasFilm. “Now I zip along the surface like a guy on a Jet Ski (Carr, 2010).” Carr cites neuroscience studies showing that when people try to do two things at once, they give less attention to each and perform the tasks less carefully. Broadly speaking, media convergence in any context is about the integration of information and communications technologies, various forms of media content, and computer networks – for which some scholars now use the shorthand “Three C’s” (communication, computing and content). But convergence hasn’t erased old technologies; instead, it may have just altered the way we use them. Odds are it’s been a while. Polaroid Corporation, creators of the once-popular instant-film cameras, was driven out of business by digital photography in 2008, only to be revived 2 years later—with pop star Lady Gaga as the brand’s creative director. Some theorists believe that convergence and new-media technologies make people smarter by requiring them to make decisions and interact with the media they’re consuming; others fear the digital age is giving us access to more information but leaving us shallower. Organic convergence is what happens when someone is watching a television show online while exchanging text messages with a friend and also listening to music in the background—the “natural” outcome of a diverse media world. http://pitchfork.com/features/articles/7764-this-is-not-a-mixtape/2/, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/20/education/20wired.html, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/20/opinion/20sun4.html1, http://www.tbsjournal.com/Archives/Spring01/white.html, Next: 1.5 The Role of Social Values in Communication, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Ed. It is a two-step process. Second, corporate concentration. 27-51. Some of its key features are: These factors have allowed media conglomerates to own different kinds of media (e.g., TV and radio stations and newspapers) in the sam… Economic Convergence: Media Consolidation 1 Many scholars and critics have noted that media ownership is controlled by an increasingly smaller number of mega-corporations. Technological convergence is when different kinds of technology merge. Children watch television because it’s fun, and are (very) unlikely to think of the possible impacts on their education. Convergence can occur even when both high- and low-income countries increase investment in physical and human capital with the objective of growing GDP. Carr, Nicholas The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains (New York: Norton, 2010). [7] Johnson, Derek. Understanding Media and Culture by University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. The Media Convergence research theme normally refers to entire production, distribution, and use process of future digital media services from contents production to service delivery through various channels such as mobile terminals, digital TV, or the Internet. Before going any further, it is important to understand the relationship between convergence and divergence because the two processes are inextricably linked. When you need brief, factual information, when was the last time you reached for a volume of Encyclopedia Britannica? Today’s media consumers still watch television, listen to radio, read newspapers, and become immersed in movies. Due to this horizontal integration, the entertainment industry has a strong incentive to produce content that moves fluidly across media sectors. An extreme, and currently nonexistent, example of technological convergence would be the so-called black box, which would combine all the functions of previously distinct technology and would be the device through which we’d receive all our news, information, entertainment, and social interaction. The domination of mainstream media outlets by corporate conglomerates makes maintaining and nurturing a franchise relatively easy. [2] Star Wars might be the most powerful transmedia franchise, earning more than 22 billion dollars in 30 years.[3]. I Diverge,” Technology Review, June 2001, 93. These statistics highlight some of the aspects of the new digital model of media consumption: participation and multitasking. New York: New York Press, 2006. In an age of high resolution, portable printers, and camera phones, the Polaroid’s appeal to some has something to do with ideas of nostalgia and authenticity. V Viacom, Time Warner, NewsCorp, Clear Channel and Disney all include separate divisions for the development of TV shows, films, comics, and video games. In Rich Media, Poor Democracy: Communication Politics in Dubious Times. Learn more. “Once I was a scuba diver in a sea of words,” Carr reflects ruefully. People are so bombarded with advertisements and sponsors that they are becoming more skilled at ignoring them. Then, answer the following questions. Nobody has a complete answer to this question. [4] As a result, many corporations have discovered that creating emotional attachment to a product yields more responsive and loyal consumers. A key insight of international economics is that there should be “convergence” between rich countries and poor countries, which is just another way of saying that low-income nations – all other things being equal – should grow faster than high-income nations and eventually attain the same level of prosperity.. 4. Economic Convergence. It’s important to keep in mind that the implementation of new technologies doesn’t mean that the old ones simply vanish into dusty museums. 105 Economic convergence is the horizontal and vertical integration of the entertainment industry, in which a single company has interests across and within many kinds of media. When countries with lower levels of GDP per capita catch up to countries with higher levels of GDP per capita, the process is called convergence. Economic convergence occurs when a company controls several products or services within the same industry. The most extreme example of technological convergence would be one machine that controlled every media function. Broadband has and will continue to become an increasing part of citizens’ day to day life, enabling commerce, education, health care, governance, and other social goods. 15 January 2003. Economic convergence in recent years has been most visible in company mergers. In higher-income countries… “The Fictional Institutions of Lost: World Building, Reality, and the Economic Possibilities of Narrative Divergence.” Reading Lost: Perspectives on a Hit Television Show. Nigeria’s cinema industry, nicknamed Nollywood, takes its cues from India’s Bollywood, which is in turn inspired by Hollywood in the United States. Either way, technological convergence and divergence have huge implications for the television industry. Roberta Pearson. (See also Royal Commission on Corporate Concentration). » Blog Archive » isthisarg.org Social Media Digest for May 10th, CHAPTER 1 The Era of Convergence: Primed for Transmedia Storytelling, Technological Convergence: Content in the Digital Age, Economic Convergence: Media Consolidation, If there are no prior comments there, a comment entry form will appear automatically, If there are already comments, you will see them and the form will be at the bottom of the thread. Media convergence is important because in today's technologically advanced world, different forms of technology continue to be released and are better than their former models because they can simply do more. [6] Jenkins, Henry. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994. The two prices must converge, or … “Star Wars' Galactic Dollars.” Forbes.com. But convergence isn’t just limited to technology. Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. Many scholars and critics have noted that media ownership is controlled by an increasingly smaller number of mega-corporations. You can’t control their narratives in any fashion—you simply sit back and have the story dictated to you…. Economic convergence in media (ownership) Paper instructions: Instructions: 1. Convergence is the movement of the price of a futures contract towards the spot price of the underlying cash commodity as the delivery date approaches. Jenkins’s concept of organic convergence is perhaps the most telling. As a New York Times editorial recently opined, “Few objects on the planet are farther removed from nature—less, say, like a rock or an insect—than a glass and stainless steel smartphone (New York Times, 2010).” But modern American culture is plugged in as never before, and today’s high school students have never known a world where the Internet didn’t exist. Organic convergence is multimedia multitasking, or the natural outcome of a diverse media world. Each response should be a minimum of one paragraph. 2. Economic Convergence Is the horizontal integration of the entertainment industry. White, Livingston A. “Reconsidering Cultural Imperialism Theory,” TBS Journal 6 (2001), http://www.tbsjournal.com/Archives/Spring01/white.html. Why does this phenomenon occur? Media conglomerates can retain a percentage of the profits from each branch, rather than having to outsource such components to a competitor. How do Steven Johnson and Nicholas Carr think convergence is affecting culture and society? To many people, especially those who grew up in a world dominated by so-called old media, there is nothing organic about today’s media-dominated world. Identify examples of convergence in contemporary life. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1999. This risks instilling a general passivity in our children, making them feel as though they’re powerless to change their circumstances. The first one is the key role of the demand for entertainment. Global convergence is when geographically distant cultures are able to influence one another. For example, Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation is involved in book publishing (HarperCollins), newspapers (. The difference is that it’s now possible to do all those things through one device—be it a personal computer or a smartphone—and through the Internet. How the media interacts with the society today. Carr worries that the vast array of interlinked information available through the Internet is eroding attention spans and making contemporary minds distracted and less capable of deep, thoughtful engagement with complex ideas and arguments. A 2010 book by Nicholas Carr, The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains is more pessimistic. It has become as much a necessity as food, water, and shelter. “Convergence? The effect of the media convergence in media industry for individuals, group government agencies and departments, companies and other organizations across the economic and social strata Today’s teenagers aren’t passively sitting in front of screens, quietly absorbing information. However, it’s still difficult to predict how media convergence and immersion are affecting culture, society, and individual brains. It usually involves a process that decouples content from media, allowing the same story or entertainment to exist in multiple forms. Broadband has the potential to transform social, economic and business growth. Jenkins breaks convergence down into five categories: Nigeria’s Nollywood produces more films annually than any other country besides India. Learn media convergence with free interactive flashcards. Choose from 487 different sets of media convergence flashcards on Quizlet. Media convergence describes the collaboration between, or fusion of, at least two types of media in mutually beneficial projects. In his 2005 book Everything Bad Is Good for You, Steven Johnson argues that today’s television and video games are mentally stimulating, in that they pose a cognitive challenge and invite active engagement and problem solving. Take cassette tapes and Polaroid film, for example. Altogether, this makes studies of media convergence, both its approaches and its results, highly relevant for the understanding of the digital creative economy. As a result, Jenkins argues, “if each work offers fresh experiences, then a crossover market will expand the potential gross within any individual media.”[6] That is, an Alias fan may not be a video gamer, but they’d be more than willing to try Alias: Underground if the game contained valuable information to the story world. politics, economics, sport, and so on, for column inches in these printed media; so far, so straightforward. And third, government deregulation. Cultural Convergence. When more and more different kinds of media are transformed into digital content, as Jenkins notes, “we expand the potential relationships between them and enable them to flow across platforms (Jenkins, 2001).”. In other words, multitasking makes us do a greater number of things poorly. Media convergence transforms established industries, services, and work practices and enables entirely new forms of content to emerge. 13 March 2009. Such a cultural sea change causes a significant generation gap between those who grew up with new media and those who didn’t. The jury is still out on how these different types of convergence will affect people on an individual and societal level. This is because the impact of new investment in physical and human capital on a low-income country may result in huge gains as new skills or equipment are combined with the labor force. Organic convergence is multimedia multitasking, or the natural outcome of a diverse media world. As Henry Jenkins points out in his influential book Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide: Franchise products are governed too much by economic logic and not enough by artistic vision. Whatever the ultimate cognitive, social, or technological results, convergence is changing the way we relate to media today. All of these habits, formerly common parts of daily life, have been rendered essentially obsolete through the progression of convergence. Yet I tend to agree with Jenkins in that convergence and divergence are complementary, not opposing forces. [1]  Viacom, Time Warner, NewsCorp, Clear Channel and Disney all include separate divisions for the development of TV shows, films, comics, and video games. Lewin, Tamar “If Your Kids Are Awake, They’re Probably Online,” New York Times, January 20, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/20/education/20wired.html. Digital convergence refers to the convergence of four industries into one conglomerate, ITTCE (Information Technologies, Telecommunication, Consumer Electronics, and Entertainment). Global convergence is the process of geographically distant cultures influencing one another despite the distance that physically separates them. The economic strategy of media convergence (also known as media consolidation, media concentration or economic convergence) is a product of three elements. Instead, they are sending text messages to friends, linking news articles on Facebook, commenting on YouTube videos, writing reviews of television episodes to post online, and generally engaging with the culture they consume. Simply barraging consumers with branding is not enough. How about a street-side pay phone? You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article. Whose argument do you find more compelling and why. Despite their ubiquity however, traditional cross-promotions are becoming less effective. In the first phase, telecommunication and IT market merge with each other, and both permeate with media market in the second phase81. [2] Wyatt, Justin. First, digitization. Economic convergence is when a single company has interests across many kinds of media. Convergence has also made multitasking much easier, as many devices allow users to surf the Internet, listen to music, watch videos, play games, and reply to e-mails on the same machine. Paul Keller – nigerian VCDs at kwakoe – CC BY 2.0. Media theorist Henry Jenkins identifies the five kinds of convergence as the following: Economic convergence is when a single company has interests across many kinds of media. New York Times, editorial, “The Half-Life of Phones,” New York Times, June 18, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/20/opinion/20sun4.html1. Media convergence can mean one of two things: Either the merging of previously distinct media technologies resulting from digitization and computer networking–some of which are covered elsewhere in this article–or an economic strategy in which the media properties owned by communications companies employ digitization and computer networking to work together. Innovations are constantly being diffused into goods and many are becoming an integral part of products. The history of convergence is difficult to trace. Economic convergence ■ Market convergence and regulatory convergence The term market convergence means merging of telecommunication, information technology and media markets. Economic Convergence Just like the general definition of Economic convergence which suggests that countries with lower GDPs are going to grow faster than countries with higher GDP, the Economic media convergence allows a single company to target larger interest groups through various kinds of media. The distinctive Polaroid look—caused by uneven color saturation, underdevelopment or overdevelopment, or just daily atmospheric effects on the developing photograph—is emphatically analog. Organic convergence is multimedia multitasking, or the natural outcome of a diverse media world. Convergence has transformed who uses these media and for what purposes, but it hasn’t eliminated these media. “This Is Not a Mixtape,” Pitchfork, February 22, 2010, http://pitchfork.com/features/articles/7764-this-is-not-a-mixtape/2/. Economic convergence is when a single company has interests across many kinds of media. Such actions are enabled by media convergence, the process by which previously distinct technologies come to share tasks and resources. This convergence signifies that all industrialized nations are approaching a common level of prosperity. However, as the technology has evolved, they can now take pictures, record video, play games, access the internet, and can be used as mp3 players. [7] Johnson sees “divergent narratives” as a more appropriate term to describe narratives extending not just through digital content, but also through newspapers, novels, magazines, and spaces of everyday life. For example, in the entertainment industry a single company may have interests across many kinds of media. Instead of being slick and digitized, cassette tapes and Polaroid photos are physical objects that are made more accessible and more human, according to enthusiasts, because of their flaws. Hogan, Marc. Further, convergence refers to the blurring Justin Wyatt describes such marketable content in High Concept, arguing that the most lucrative franchises are those claiming a cast of stars, a distinctive style, and an easily digestible premise. Media conglomerates attract diverse audiences into their franchise through various entry points — films, magazines, TV shows, news programs — and continue to barrage them with promotions in virtually every other medium. The idea of convergence in economics (also sometimes known as the catch-up effect) is the hypothesis that poorer economies' per capita incomes will tend to grow at faster rates than richer economies. A 2010 study by the Kaiser Family Foundation found that Americans aged 8 to 18 spend more than 7.5 hours with electronic devices each day—and, thanks to multitasking, they’re able to pack an average of 11 hours of media content into that 7.5 hours (Lewin, 2010). Technological convergence is the merging of technologies such as the ability to watch TV shows online on sites like Hulu or to play video games on mobile phones like the Apple iPhone. London: IB Tauris, 2009. Reading is not an active, participatory process; it’s a submissive one (Johnson, 2005).”. 1.2 Intersection of American Media and Culture, 1.5 The Role of Social Values in Communication, 3.3 Books and the Development of U.S. Popular Culture, 4.3 Different Styles and Models of Journalism, 4.4 How Newspapers Control the Public’s Access to Information and Impact American Pop Culture, 4.5 Current Popular Trends in the Newspaper Industry, 5.3 The Role of Magazines in the Development of American Popular Culture, 5.4 Major Publications in the Magazine Industry, 5.5 How Magazines Control the Public’s Access to Information, 5.7 Influence of the Internet on the Magazine Industry, 6.3 The Reciprocal Nature of Music and Culture, 6.4 Current Popular Trends in the Music Industry, 9.2 The Relationship Between Television and Culture, 9.3 Issues and Trends in the Television Industry, Chapter 10: Electronic Games and Entertainment, 10.4 The Impact of Video Games on Culture, 10.6 Blurring the Boundaries Between Video Games, Information, Entertainment, and Communication, Chapter 11: The Internet and Social Media, 11.4 The Effects of the Internet and Globalization on Popular Culture and Interpersonal Communication, Chapter 12: Advertising and Public Relations, 13.3 The Internet’s Effects on Media Economies, 14.4 Ethical Considerations of the Online World, 15.7 Media Influence on Laws and Government, 15.6 Digital Democracy and Its Possible Effects, 16.1 Changes in Media Over the Last Century, 16.3 Modern Media Delivery: Pros and Cons, 16.5 Privacy Laws and the Impact of Digital Surveillance, 16.6 Mass Media, New Technology, and the Public. 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