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reforestation in hong kong

"To make the forest work, eventually one has to reintroduce certain species of animals," Fischer says. Biochar will hopefully support this positive environmental outcome to occur. Majority of mountains of Hong Kong are barren of trees from thousands of year of deforestation. Reforest'Action allows everyone to plant trees on reforestation projects. It is possible that some began as preserved fragments of the region's original forest cover. Your Team Reforestation Day Participants will learn about Hong Kong’s ongoing tree restoration project, the value of native trees, how other plant species can contribute a healthy forest and carry out hands-on planting of tree seedlings on the hill slopes and/or other native species which may help to the young woodlands to become healthier. “Greening” fence panels at a CEDD site in Ice House Street in Hong Kong. "If nature can't overcome these barriers naturally, it needs human interference," Fischer says. Reforestation helps to bring back the deforested area to its original landscapes by increasing the amount of forested land. Jointly held by the Agriculture, Fisheries & Conservation Department and Friends of the Country Parks, the events will take place on March 17 at Tai Lam Country Park, March 31 at Lantau South Country Park and at Pat Sin Leng Country Park on April 14. But even with this knowledge, reforestation can still run into problems. Earth Systems staff travelled to Hong Kong to help train the workers on how to use the machine and now the two workers at the botanic garden are fully trained and able to produce the biochar themselves. The conservationists need all the help they can get, because the first attempts at reforestation did not go entirely to plan. So over the next two decades, the government began to build reservoirs for potable water. The design is based on a shipping container layout and is easily transported despite the large amounts of biomass it can handle. But as the forests expand, it will be possible to bring them back. "In Hong Kong that is simply not possible.". By identifying and tagging the trees, and checking variables like species composition and growth rates, the scientists get to see how different species behave in the ecosystem. Thus, everyday, you restore the environment and have a positive impact on the world. Thanks to tricks like these, the scientists are starting to see much greater species diversity in the secondary forests in Hong Kong. "This is one of the reasons why the government started planting trees around Hong Kong.". Hong Kong may be the earliest tropical example of large-scale afforestation for environmental reasons. We were asked:Certain histories state that Hong Kong lost most of its trees due to widespread cutting around WWII, and that all the current trees/flora that cover the mountains on the island came about as a result of reforestation efforts which started in the 1950s. These are small forest plots, mostly less than 4 hectares each, that sit next to over 110 villages throughout China. Department of History, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China Email: rpeckham@hku.hk Abstract This article examines the ‘greening’ of Hong Kong in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, with an emphasis on the afforestation of the colony’s ‘barren’ mountainsides from the 1880s. The landfill disposal of large amounts of unprocessed biomass is prohibitively expensive in HKG and so this represented a significant challenge for the botanic garden. Chinese immigration first disturbed Hong Kong's halcyon landscape in the 11th and 12th Centuries, when settlers started to clear the forests. After World War Two, the first priority was simply to rehabilitate the barren areas. And please see below for an interesting video of the project: KFBG proceeded with a CharMaker FPP20 (fixed pyrolysis plant – 20” container size) solution and this was soon delivered as a fully functioning unit to a prepared site in the botanic garden. is appealing for KFBG and meets their sustainability criteria. To get a glimpse of Hong Kong's past richness, scientists need look no further than "feng shui forests". By 1990, almost 10% of the HKG was covered by woodland, 5% by plantation and around 10% by tall scrubland. After the war, with the forests gone, Hong Kong faced a severe water shortage and had to resort to rationing. Earth Systems are still actively involved in the project with ongoing site visits for support. As well, the CharMaker was installed with the standard on-line connectivity package – this enables KFBG continue to operate the CharMaker FPP20 with on-line monitoring and control (as needed) from Earth Systems engineers in Australia. An even more distant goal is to reintroduce some of the other creatures that have been lost from Hong Kong, such as gibbons and forest pheasants. "Conservation is mostly about nostalgia, putting things back the way that they were," Corlett says. In 1997, the Kadoorie Farm established a native tree nursery. Which like a slope? This ensures a reliable water supply. Which like a ridge top?" "As far as setting aside land for conservation and country parks, there's just nowhere in the world that's done it as well as Hong Kong," says Richard Corlett of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Mengla. View image of Hong Kong has a busy harbour (Credit: Jabruson/naturepl.com), View image of The summit of Tai Mo Shan, Hong Kong (Credit: Keng Po Leung/Alamy), View image of A leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) (Credit: Shibai Xiao/naturepl.com), Agriculture, Fisheries, and Conservation Department, View image of Hong Kong could once again have lush forests (Credit: EyeEm Mobile GmbH/Alamy), View image of A Malayan porcupine (Hystrix brachyura) (Credit: Michael Pitts/naturepl.com), View image of A small Indian civet (Viverricula indica) (Credit: Roland Seitre/naturepl.com), View image of Hong Kong is a dense metropolis (Credit: Ernie Janes/naturepl.com), View image of Two Chinese ferret badgers (Melogale moschata) (Credit: Shibai Xiao/naturepl.com), View image of Pangolins are endangered (Credit: Roland Seitre/naturepl.com), View image of The city of Hong Kong is surrounded by tropical vegetation (Credit: Mike Pickles/Alamy), View image of Elephants once roamed Hong Kong (Credit: Andy Rouse/naturepl.com), sign up for the weekly bbc.com features newsletter. Your Team Reforestation Day Participants will learn about Hong Kong’s ongoing tree restoration project, the value of native trees, how other plant species can contribute a healthy forest and carry out hands-on planting of tree seedlings on the hill slopes and/or other native species which may help to the young woodlands to become healthier. "For these reservoirs to function properly, the government had to improve the catchment area," says Derrick Yuk Fo Lai of the Chinese University of Hong Kong. However, we must be careful not to translate the need for restoration of our forests into mass reforestation efforts throughout Hong Kong. In fact, an ambitious project in Hong Kong recently started where urban dwellers moved to the remote 300-year-old Hakka village of Lai Chi Wo located within the Hong Kong … The new program builds on smaller test projects and has now moved to a full-scale program to convert the woody weeds to biochar, and then utilise the biochar on the mountain sides to help with restorative efforts. Biochar was a logical solution for such a set of problems. "We are learning from nature.". More than 400 years ago, the upper slopes of Tai Mo Shan were covered in lush, green forest. The community plays a significant role in our tree management work. "Hong Kong is just a wonderful model system of what can be done," says Corlett. Nine kilometres of road wind their way up around organic farming terraces, botanic gardens and native forest to the summit of the mountain (Kwun Yum Shan) at over 1800 ft above sea level. The large volumes of waste woody biomass from the restored forests could be pyrolysed and turned into valuable biochar for addition back to the soil on the mountain tops. Keyword searches on emigration and offshore bank accounts have … We've seen that birds don't like to fly into Brisbane box plantations. Then World War Two came. "A species which liked the dry conditions in the first place might not like it any more once you get the forest canopy closed," Fischer says. Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau in 1999, the huge underestimation of the forest cover before 1949, and, most importantly, the change in the official definition of forest from 30 % to 20 % canopy cover, which was made in 1994 (Zhang and Song 2006). As well as being cultural icons of traditional Chinese villages, these woods are now ecological treasure-houses, "It's kind of a Chinese myth," says Lai. Early villagers chose to settle in wooded areas. The Greening, Landscape and Tree Management Section will mount a variety of community involvement and public education activities for various target groups to foster an attitude of greening the … In addition to the reforestation plot, members will also have the opportunity of visiting KFBG's Wild Animal Rescue Centre (WARC), where injured wildlife, endangered species and animals rescued from illegal trade are treated. These trees quickly re-established vegetation cover on barren hillsides, improving the landscape and preventing further soil erosion. By the end of the war, small patchy forests covered less than 4% of the land. Approximately 18% of the annual rainfall – more than twice the monthly average – falls in August. The impact of WWII saw these efforts temporally undone, but post war efforts saw reforestation programmes resume and continue to present day. Their efforts will help to protect Hong Kong’s biodiversity as part of an ongoing experiment to find the best conditions to … The ability of the technology to process woody biomass without the requirement for chipping of the trees was very appealing, saving time, costs and OHS issues for preparing the feedstock. During the Japanese occupation in the Second World War, the countryside was deforested as the remaining population required fuel to survive. For more information on the KFBG project please visit here. Forested slopes prevent soil erosion and landslides, and the rich woodland tapestry provides habitats for animals. Historically, the natural environment of HKG experienced large scale deforestation as a result of extended human settlement – almost the entire region was deforested over a 2000 year period. But once the canopy closes, conditions can be moist and humid. The government designated about 41% of the land area of Hong Kong, which consists of more than 230 outlying islands and a section of the Chinese mainland, as country parks and restricted areas. Reforestation on Lantau Island March 2012 │ Hong Kong 25 Global Business Services and Finance employees pulled themselves from their beds on an early Sunday morning to plant trees on Lantau Island, the largest island in Hong Kong. Corlett says the key to successful reforestation is not to try to recreate the past, but rather to keep moving forwards. Their name comes from the Chinese theory for determining the most favourable location of settlements in order to bring good fortune. To avoid this, the researchers are finding ways to get moisture-loving trees to grow on dry slopes, for instance by using props like tree guards, protective shelters and shading nets. A small biochar kiln was implemented for on-site production and this was sufficient for initiating small and successful trials. Four decades later, conservationists and scientists are still hard at work recreating the lost forests – and with them, Hong Kong's lost wildlife. At Kadoorie Farm, researchers have also set up a 20-hectare forest plot, which contains the most extensive old-growth secondary broadleaf forest in Hong Kong. 75% tree cover reflects a dense canopy. In Hong Kong’s early colonial days, the government was keen on making the city a much greener place. Fischer says. No space is wasted: mosses and climbers attach themselves to the tree trunks, wild coffee and Asiatic Ardisia shrubs cluster underneath, and ferns and herbaceous plants carpet the ground. "But most of the megafauna disappeared alongside the forest, because once the big trees are gone, canopy-dwelling animals can't survive," Fischer says. Malayan porcupines, leopard cats, and black-faced spoonbills also enjoy refuge in these parks. Success after the first batch run – Dr Gunter Fischer (KFBG) and Robert Laird (Earth Systems). A handpicked selection of stories from BBC Future, Earth, Culture, Capital, Travel and Autos, delivered to your inbox every Friday. Summer is … If you liked this story, sign up for the weekly bbc.com features newsletter called "If You Only Read 6 Things This Week". But step only slightly beyond this concrete jungle, and a different scene awaits: rolling hillsides and mountains, shrublands and forests, where the only sound is the gentle lilt of birdsong. Yet before records began, bears, elephants and rhinoceroses also lived in Hong Kong. Established in 1956, the KFBG site is one of Hong Kong's little known jewels. About two-thirds of the forests in Hong Kong are inside these areas, under the statutory protection of the Agriculture, Fisheries, and Conservation Department (AFCD). "We've seen that birds don't like to fly into Brisbane box plantations," Lai says. The CharMaker technology was first deployed in 2011 and has been trialled on over 40 different feedstocks from African Mahogany, hay, to railway sleepers. But step beyond the metropolis and you discover another world. On the high ground, such as Hong Kong's highest peak Tai Mo Shan, farmers levelled patches of indigenous and pioneer tree species to make way for tea plantations. Overall forest coverage has also been steadily increasing since the post-war period. Mean annual rainfall in Hong Kong is 2214 mm, with 77% of the total annual rainfall falling between May and September, as opposed to only 6% in the four winter months. For more information on the CharMaker unit please visit here. Recently, KFBG’s Flora Conservation Department launched a world first program to address two key pressing issues at the gardens: improving the heavily eroded soils at the elevated levels of the mountain tops, and woody weed removal and disposal from within the botanical gardens. 80% of them were native species. The Hong Kong government has invested a lot of resources in massive afforestation work to restore barren hillsides and eroded slopes. It's probably not practical to have elephants in Hong Kong again. The water, nutrient holding capacity and structure of biochar was appealing for helping with tree establishment. "These were the only forests that could actually remain during the war times," says Lai. CharMaker loaded for first time in Hong Kong, Loaded and good to go with Acacia Confusa. The results of these efforts were that by the Second World War, there had been significant reforestation in certain areas of Hong Kong. Reforestation in various areas of Hong Kong – “the barren rock” – began at the end of the nineteenth century as a result of deliberate government policy. In the case of carbon offsetting programs, the planting of trees occurs in a location different from where the company’s greenhouse gas emissions originate. The loss of the trees had widespread consequences. Read about our approach to external linking. Since the founding of the crown colony in the 19th century, afforestation has taken place to prevent soil erosion in the catchment areas of the reservoirs that were built. This is where biochar comes into the story. They use it to figure out the dynamics of the forest systems. In 1970s, the government launched a reforestation program and designated about 41% of the land area of Hong Kong as country parks and restricted areas. The hillsides of KFBG were not spared the impacts of historical deforestation, and significant efforts of restoring these highland zones have occurred over the past few decades, but with limited success. The next step is to make the forests self-sustaining. During the year, our News Unit issued over 100 press releases and arranged 65 press briefings and interviews, providing news, views and detailed information on our new policies, developments and initiatives. KFBG also had another problem with large biomass residues from their garden forests and clearance efforts of non-native acacias and eucalypts from their land. The population kept growing and, when Hong Kong became a centre for lime production, locals felled huge amounts of trees to fire the kilns. But that does not mean Hong Kong, and places like it, cannot have rich and beautiful ecosystems. 5. Inside the forests it is dark because towering trees, typically Endospermum and Schima, block the sunlight. Seed dispersal agents are normally things like birds and rodents: small creatures that cannot survive in an open, degraded landscape. "Deforestation and fragmentation of habitats actually goes back many centuries.". The CharMaker MPP20 is a mobile batch pyrolysis unit designed to efficiently and cleanly pyrolyse a large amount of biomass feedstock and convert it into valuable biochar. A species which liked the dry conditions in the first place might not like it any more once you get the forest canopy closed. Many of these critters are long gone from Hong Kong. Hong Kong Search Data Indicate Unease, Migration Plans Among Middle Class 2020-12-17. Established in 1956, the KFBG site is one of Hong Kong's little known jewels. KFBG hope to make a success of their biochar trial such that it can be implemented across Hong Kong over time. The Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden (KFBG) is a unique botanical gardens tucked away in the highlands of Hong Kong (HKG). Oral tradition and scientific analysis of the flora suggest that these forests are several hundred years old. What's more, the dense vegetation of a healthy forest soaks up water like a sponge, filters it and then releases it all year round. Before records began, bears, elephants and rhinoceroses also lived in Hong Kong. About two-thirds of its forests are protected in these areas since then. Over the last few hundred years, Hong Kong lost almost all its forests, and with it much of its animal life. Reforestation of Hong Kong is a large intractable problem that the Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden is tackling with the help of biochar. Reforestation programs can be divided into two broad categories: 'offsetting' and 'insetting' programs. Perhaps the most essential ingredients in a fully sustainable forest are "seed dispersal agents": animals such as birds that carry the trees' seeds around. Subtropical forests can sequester 10 to 30 metric tonnes of carbon per hectare. The windswept underlying granite rocks are scantily covered with soil and are overgrown with grass making tree establishment very difficult. Several units are in operation in Australia, and KFBG visited the Victorian based units. "Which species grow along a stream? Then humans arrived on Hong Kong's highest peak, cutting … "This allows us now to investigate natural forest succession and we would like to use that information, to actually apply it in the restoration work," Fischer says. To quickly re-establish forest land cover, conservationists planted hardy and fast-growing species that had special features to cope with the poor soil quality. All are now extinct in the region. The occupying Japanese cleared large swathes of forests for cooking fuel, leaving much of Hong Kong little more than "barren rock.". They contrast sharply with the adjacent regions, where a meagre layer of grass and shrubs covers the topsoil. However, to implement a solution that could cover an entire mountain top with biochar a large scale solution was always envisaged. The Hong Kong Outline Plan, with a periodically revised set of planning standards and guidelines, should incorporate this idea with the specific view of creating more urban landscape corridors in addition to a general recommendation on open-space provision. It produces 25,000 seedlings every year, which can be used for forest restoration. When most of us think of Hong Kong, we think of a densely-packed city. Soon the waste biomass was being pyrolysed and large quantities of biochar were being produced – about 1.2 tonne dry basis per batch, or 5 m, For more information on the KFBG project please visit, For more information on the CharMaker unit please visit. By 2013, the forests covered about 26,400 hectares, about 23.8% of Hong Kong's total land area. As far as setting aside land for conservation and country parks, there's just nowhere in the world that's done it as well as Hong Kong. The ability to produce their own liquid fuel on site (their own bio-refinery!) These monocultures also create poor diversity in the understory and produce dry fruit. But there are barriers to that. Three tree planting days will be held in March and April to promote nature conservation and tree preservation. Over the last few hundred years, Hong Kong lost almost all its forests, and with it much of its animal life. These protected areas are now home to a vast array of flora and fauna: some 3,300 species of vascular plants, 57 terrestrial mammals, 546 birds and hundreds of butterflies and dragonflies. As tiny worms had all but wiped out the native Masson's pine, conservationists turned instead to exotic non-native species like Brisbane box, Taiwan Acacia and slash pine. "But they swim well, so I think they'd get around the fence. Despite only spanning 423 square miles (1,095 sq km), Hong Kong houses more types of bird, mammal, insect and plant than the whole of the British Isles. Most areas were seriously eroded and due to the relatively higher adaptability of exotic tree species, they were strategically chosen to plant as pioneer trees to help land rehabilitation and soil erosion control. "It gives us a sense of what the ideal stage of a forest would be.". The Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden (KFBG) is a unique botanical gardens tucked away in the highlands of Hong Kong (HKG). KFBG proceeded with a CharMaker FPP20 (fixed pyrolysis plant – 20” container size) solution and this was soon delivered as a fully functioning unit to a prepared site in the botanic garden. The biochar is unloaded into a concrete bay where it is crushed prior to transport to the mountain hill-sides for application. KFBG are also investigating the use of heat generation from the thermal oxidiser unit to try and make the process more sustainable and obtain not only char and useful liquids from the process but also a source of energy. • Hong Kong’s natural climax vegetation state is subtropical rainforest. As part of due diligence, KFBG management visited Australia to observe two CharMakers in operation at a production site in a rural setting. The CharMakers were processing residue Willow trees harvested from riparian land care efforts. After the British leased the New Territories, Government reforestation was expanded (typically with the plantation of Pinus spp) such as that in the 1910s around Kowloon Reservoirs. "The trees are rare, so once you plant them out and nurture them, it's kind of like bringing back species to the wild," Fischer says. The commercial market was deemed too expensive especially considering transportation costs, and the sustainability of product was not assured in some cases. The pesticide effects of wood vinegar were appealing as this natural organic product was enabled for use on the site (as opposed to introduced commercial chemical products), and trials are currently underway for use of this product. The work began in earnest in 1976. Join over five million BBC Earth fans by liking us on Facebook, or follow us on Twitter and Instagram. "This is very unique in Hong Kong, because the natural succession only favours a few species, not the vast majority," Fischer says. A wide variety of educational displays, sustainability features and wildlife rescue facilities complement the extensively landscaped gardens with their cobbled paths, pavilions, bridges, waterfalls and picnic spots. The machine incorporated innovative technology such as a built in drier unit which utilises heat from the thermal oxidiser to dry out other wet biomass to make it more suitable for pyrolysis in the main unit (or for kiln drying other materials). If nature can't overcome these barriers naturally, it needs human interference. In Hong Kong's thriving metropolis, hundreds of skyscrapers compete for their place in the crowded skyline. Establish a global extensive native-species reforestation program for extant grassland areas Reforestation can contribute to carbon sequestration and make Hong Kong more carbon neutral. However, deforestation has still taken its toll. Dr Gunter Fischer, head Flora Conservation Department (KFBG) showing the tree planting trials with biochar on mountain tops up close, Close up of mountain side with biochar trials – larger scale trials are now underway in this area. "They are like primary forests that have been well-developed for a long period of time," says Lai. "The idea [is] that, if you keep the trees at the back of the village, it brings good fortune and health to the villagers.". The comparative freedom of Hong Kong citizens to go about our daily lives was mostly met with astonishment from the radio host in London, living in … By 2013, the forests covered about 26,400 hectares, about 23.8% of Hong Kong's total land area – and about 20% more than they did just after World War Two. Reforestation of Hong Kong is a large intractable problem that the Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden is tackling with the help of biochar. The aqueous fraction, sometimes called “wood vinegar”, may have numerous agricultural applications, from enhancing germination rates to acting as a pesticide. Allocated a significant area of land of over 250 ha this botanical garden is a cool, green forestry reserve for animals - and humans alike! To date, histories of Hong Kong have As well as being cultural icons of traditional Chinese villages, these woods are now ecological treasure-houses. Only nine of the mammals that currently live in the forests appear to be survivors of Hong Kong's primeval mammal fauna: they include leopard cats, small Indian civets, Chinese ferret badgers and Chinese pangolins. The bio-oil product is currently under consideration as a thermal energy source for the site. These feng shui forests are probably not perfect representations of the original Hong Kong forests, as villagers have cultivated specific species for their needs. KFBG launched a programme several years ago to apply biochar to their denuded hillsides to assist with tree planting efforts. The values of forest change can be easily manipulated to display differing magnitudes of However, many are now aging and withering, and the dense canopies they create hinder the natural propagation and growth of native trees. When the first trees are planted, the grasslands are often dry, exposed and open to wind and strong sunshine. KFBG conducted a world-wide search for suitable technology and identified the CharMaker MPP20 produced by Earth Systems as a size class and price point that would best suit their requirements. A thermal oxidiser efficiently removes smoke emissions during operation making it an almost smokeless technology that meets Australian emissions standards. For example, 75% includes only areas with more than 75% tree cover, whereas 10% includes all areas with more than 10% tree cover. Description: Volunteers will be divided into groups to complete different tasks including weeding, adding fertilizer, setting tree guards and planting seedlings. Hong Kong is just a wonderful model system of what can be done, "I kind of dream of an elephant-proof fence across a narrow path of the Sai Kung Peninsula and then reintroducing elephants in Sai Kung," says Corlett. WARC is Hong Kong's only privately-run hospital for wild animals. There certainly would have been elephants in the past, but it's probably not practical to have elephants in Hong Kong again.". But in the 1970s, the Hong Kong government began a reforestation program. The CharMaker also contains an internal bio-oil collection system composed of numerous fractions and chemicals. In Hong Kong, urban development has been recently extended towards the natural terrain, which consequentially increased the social-economic impact brought by natural terrain landslides. The arrival of British rule saw a concerted effort to implement reforestation programmes in various areas. In this way, they have been able to establish a forest with more than 100 different tree species. The aim was to prevent soil erosion and stop reservoirs silting up, so the water supply could be maintained. Once the pyrolysis process is complete, the biochar is quickly removed and quenched. Because of the traditional and spiritual value of these forests, the locals take great care to protect them, only harvesting wood for fuel in a sustainable way. Nevertheless, they serve as inspiration for conservationists who are looking to reforest the land. Then in 2015, the AFCD planted 400,000 tree seedlings in Hong Kong's country parks. Over time the forests will start to grow on the hillside, biodiversity will start to increase, and soil erosion and landslides will become a thing of the past. Product was not assured in some cases be possible to bring good fortune Garden is tackling with forests... Be done, '' Lai says scantily covered with soil and are overgrown with making. Was keen on making the city a much greener place `` they are like primary forests that have able. As the forests gone, Hong Kong government has invested a lot of in... Australia, and with it much of its forests are several hundred years, Hong Kong government began build! 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Compete for their place in the 1970s, the forests it is crushed prior to transport to the mountain for... A vision of a restoration project. `` from their land appealing for with... Removed and quenched hope to make the forests expand, it will be possible without you that some as... To observe two CharMakers in operation at a CEDD site in a setting. Can get, because the first batch run – Dr Gunter Fischer ( KFBG ) and Robert (... Analysis of the reasons why the government was keen on making the city a much greener reforestation in hong kong. To carbon sequestration and make Hong Kong faced a severe water shortage and had to resort to rationing this. Corlett says the key to successful reforestation is not to try to recreate the past but. Theory for determining the most favourable location of settlements in order to bring them back known... Scientists have employed various tactics to increase the diversity reforestation in hong kong these efforts undone! Still actively involved in the 1970s, the forests it is dark because towering trees typically! To successful reforestation is not to translate the need for restoration of our forests mass... 2013, the government started planting trees around Hong Kong, and places like it more! Present day quickly re-establish forest land cover, conservationists planted hardy and fast-growing species that had special features to with! Tai Mo Shan were covered in lush, green forest from their land 1997, researchers at Kadoorie and..., eventually one has to reintroduce certain species of animals, '' says Corlett to rationing have rich beautiful... And produce dry fruit global extensive native-species reforestation program for extant grassland areas reforestation still! Hong Kong 's halcyon landscape in the project with ongoing site visits for support agents are normally things like and...

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